media captionThe BBC’s Anne Soy studies from a refugee camp on the Sudan-Ethiopian border

Ethiopian Prime Minister Abiy Ahmed says he’s launching the “closing section” of the military’s operation within the northern area of Tigray after weeks of preventing.

He mentioned the army would strive to not hurt civilians within the regional capital Mekelle – a metropolis of 500,000 individuals – and urged residents to remain at dwelling.

The TPLF get together, which controls Mekelle, has vowed to maintain preventing.

The UN warns of doable battle crimes if the Ethiopian military assaults Mekelle.

UN human rights chief Michele Bachelet instructed the BBC town’s inhabitants had been in “deep peril”.

“We’re actually alarmed by the damaging scenario notably due to the civilians trapped in Mekelle,” she mentioned, including that there was “potential for critical violations of worldwide humanitarian human rights legislation”.

Mr Abiy’s announcement comes after a deadline he gave for Tigray fighters to give up handed on Wednesday.

A whole lot of individuals have reportedly been killed and hundreds have been pressured from their properties as Ethiopian forces have seized numerous cities in Tigray from the TPLF.

Particulars of the preventing are onerous to verify as a result of all cellphone, cell and web communications with the Tigray area have been lower.

  • Africa Dwell: Extra on this and different tales

  • Fears of ethnic profiling stalk Ethiopia battle
  • Disaster has engulfed Ethiopia. Right here’s what it means

Journalist and political activist Daniel Berhane, who’s in Mekelle, instructed the BBC there was no signal but of any assault, and that outlets, cafes and eating places within the metropolis had been “nearly full”.

Three African Union representatives have arrived within the Ethiopian capital Addis Ababa to attempt to dealer talks however Ethiopia has to this point rejected all mediation makes an attempt, saying the battle is an inner matter and Mr Abiy’s authorities is engaged in a legislation enforcement mission in Tigray.

The three envoys won’t be allowed to journey to Tigray.

Additionally on Thursday, Ethiopian troops had been deployed alongside the Tigray area’s border with Sudan, the place they prevented individuals fleeing the violence from leaving the nation, in keeping with refugees.

A BBC correspondent on the Sudanese aspect of the border noticed not less than a dozen members of the Ethiopian army, resulting in a marked lower within the variety of individuals crossing into Sudan.

Greater than 40,000 individuals have fled Ethiopia because the battle started.

Fears of pricey Mekelle offensive

By Kalkidan Yibeltal, BBC Information, Addis Ababa

Within the “closing section” of the army offensive that PM Abiy launched following the expiry of the 72-hour ultimatum, he spoke of a army technique through which high personnel of the TPLF can be delivered to justice with out harming civilians or properties in and round Mekelle.

It’s not clear what that technique is but it surely won’t be simple to hold it out, notably if there’s energetic preventing within the metropolis. Artillery assaults, as had been urged by a military official final week, and airstrikes are notably tough to conduct with out killing civilians and destroying civilian infrastructure.

The federal authorities’s troops might be met with a type of guerrilla warfare from the realm exterior Mekelle.

And it might additionally take longer than the federal government wish to conclude the offensive. That might imply a worsening of the humanitarian disaster and consequently extra worldwide stress.

Prior to now three weeks the federal government has taken management of numerous areas in Tigray however at a value. An offensive on the state capital – believed to be the primary stronghold of the TPLF – might be much more pricey.

What did PM Abiy say?

He ordered the Ethiopian army to launch an offensive on Mekelle within the “third and closing section” of the federal authorities’s army marketing campaign in opposition to the TPLF.

Mr Abiy mentioned “nice care” can be taken to guard civilians and “all efforts” can be made to restrict injury to Mekelle.

picture copyrightReuters

picture captionAutomobiles are seen queuing for petrol in Mekelle, a metropolis of 500,000 individuals

He urged individuals in Mekelle and the encompassing areas to disarm, keep at dwelling and stay away from army targets.

Non secular and historic websites, establishments and residential areas wouldn’t be focused, he mentioned.

How is the TPLF responding?

The chief of the highly effective regional get together, Debretsion Gebremichael, has mentioned Tigray forces are “able to die in defence of our proper to manage our area”.

The TPLF fighters, drawn largely from a paramilitary unit and a well-drilled native militia, are thought to quantity about 250,000. Some analysts worry that the scenario might flip right into a guerrilla battle – with the TPLF persevering with to mount assaults on authorities forces even when they take Mekelle.

media captionThe BBC’s Matthew Amroliwala challenged Ethiopian authorities minister Bikila Hurisa over how civilians can be protected

One instance of how this would possibly play out is the battle for Aksum airport, which in keeping with pro-government sources fell to Ethiopian forces on 11 November and continues to be managed by them.

However 11 days after the seize state media printed photos of the runway apparently strewn with rubble and with trenches dug throughout it to stop planes touchdown, accusing the TPLF of sabotage assaults. Mr Debretsion denied destroying the airport, saying his forces had put up obstacles to cease the Ethiopian military.

Reuters quoted a diplomatic supply as saying the TPLF “have mobilised a lot of individuals in Mekelle”. The particular person added: “They’re digging trenches and everybody has an AK-47 [rifle].”

media caption‘We got here with the garments on our backs’

Help teams worry the battle might set off a humanitarian disaster and destabilise the Horn of Africa area.

Ethiopia’s state-appointed Human Rights Fee has accused a Tigrayan youth group of being behind a bloodbath earlier this month through which it says greater than 600 non-Tigrayan civilians within the city of Mai-Kadra had been killed. The TPLF has denied involvement.

Discover out extra concerning the Tigray disaster:

media captionThree penalties of the continued disaster in Tigray.

What’s the preventing about?

The battle is rooted in longstanding rigidity between Ethiopia’s central authorities and the TPLF, which was the dominant political drive in the entire nation till Mr Abiy got here to energy in 2018 and launched a collection of far-reaching reforms.

When Mr Abiy postponed a nationwide election due to coronavirus in June, relations additional deteriorated.

The TPLF mentioned the central authorities’s mandate to rule had expired, arguing that Mr Abiy had not been examined in a nationwide election.

In September the get together held its personal election, which the central authorities mentioned was “unlawful”.

Then, on 4 November, the Ethiopian prime minister introduced an operation in opposition to the TPLF, accusing its forces of attacking the military’s northern command headquarters in Mekelle.

Associated Matters