The multipronged recommendation, for people and state and native officers, could augur a nationwide technique within the months to come back, consultants mentioned.

A free Covid-19 testing site at Holy Spirit Catholic Church in the Bronx.
Credit…James Estrin/The New York Times

Roni Caryn RabinApoorva Mandavilli

With coronavirus infections hovering throughout the nation, federal well being officers on Friday urged Americans in probably the most forceful language but to take steps to guard themselves — beginning with constant, correct use of masks — and pressed native governments to undertake 10 public well being measures deemed essential to comprise the pandemic.

The steering mirrored deep concern on the company that the pandemic is spiraling additional uncontrolled and that many hospitals are reaching a breaking level, probably disrupting well being care throughout the nation.

Agency officers have issued more and more stark warnings within the waning weeks of the Trump administration, and President-elect Joseph R. Biden Jr. has promised a brand new nationwide technique to show again the virus. On Thursday, Mr. Biden mentioned he would name on Americans to put on facial coverings for 100 days.

To some consultants, the C.D.C.’s enchantment appeared to augur a extra complete and coordinated nationwide method to controlling the pandemic — one per messages from Mr. Biden and his advisers.

“We’re seeing C.D.C. and other public health institutions awaken from their politics-induced coma,” mentioned Dr. Thomas R. Frieden, who served because the company’s director underneath President Barack Obama.

“This is them aligning themselves more with science, which also aligns them more with the Biden administration,” he added.

While not one of the directives are new, consultants mentioned the rising case numbers demonstrated a necessity for a extra uniform method, somewhat than the patchwork of restrictions adopted by states.

“The role of the C.D.C. is to lead with the science,” mentioned Dr. Celine Gounder, an infectious-disease doctor and member of Mr. Biden’s Covid advisory group. “In the absence of strong national guidance from the C.D.C., we’ve had a variety of responses across the country, some more scientifically grounded than others.”

The scientific proof supporting the effectiveness of sure well being measures, resembling sporting masks, has been accumulating, and people measures are urgently wanted now to cease the unfold, C.D.C. officers mentioned.

Though the company has issued all the suggestions in earlier steering, the brand new abstract represented the primary time the C.D.C. had revealed a multipronged checklist of methods for states, a form of battle plan.

“This idea of a 50-state solution is completely impractical when we live in one nation,” mentioned Jennifer Nuzzo, an epidemiologist at Johns Hopkins University’s Bloomberg School of Public Health. “We are not going to get past this pandemic unless we have a concerted national approach.”

The new suggestions place excessive precedence on conserving colleges open, from kindergarten by twelfth grade, saying colleges needs to be each “the last settings to close” and “the first to reopen” due to the important function they play in offering meals and assist companies to kids. Closures take a disproportionate toll on low-income households, the company famous.

Officials warned that consuming at indoor eating places was one of many “particularly high-risk scenarios” as a result of diners needed to take away their masks. The C.D.C. urged communities to require face coverings on mass transit, one thing Mr. Biden additionally has endorsed, and to develop routine screening to establish asymptomatic people, who’re liable for about 50 p.c of transmissions.

Failure to implement the preventive measures will result in continued unfold of the virus and extra pointless deaths, mentioned Margaret A. Honein, the primary writer of the C.D.C. report.

She emphasised that Americans might take many necessary steps on their very own: sporting masks, bodily distancing from others, limiting their contacts and avoiding nonessential visits to indoor areas.

“We want to make sure every person is aware that it’s within their power to take this critical step: Wear a face mask and prevent transmission, and maintain physical distance from others,” mentioned Dr. Honein, a member of the company’s Covid-19 emergency response workforce.

Scientific proof that masks can each forestall an contaminated particular person from spreading the illness and defend the consumer from an infection is “compelling,” she added. “Clearly, not everyone is hearing how important that is,” she mentioned. “It’s an action everyone can take to protect each other.”

Americans additionally ought to keep away from indoor areas exterior the house, in addition to crowded out of doors areas, the C.D.C. mentioned. That consists of eating places and will additionally apply to some with out of doors eating: The report suggests switching to takeout meals service as an alternative.

Americans needs to be examined if uncovered to the virus and may cooperate with contact tracers if contaminated, the company mentioned. They ought to keep residence and postpone journey, air out and ventilate rooms, wash palms regularly and get vaccines as they develop into out there.

Exercise needs to be carried out open air, with a masks and social distancing, the company mentioned. Working remotely needs to be inspired, and social gatherings needs to be restricted.

In a shift, the C.D.C. additionally urged states and native jurisdictions to encourage and implement these behaviors, together with mandating the sporting of masks in public areas and on public transportation.

The Trump administration in September blocked a C.D.C. order that will have required passengers to put on masks on planes, buses and subway trains and in transit hubs. Officials in some states proceed to withstand masks mandates in public areas. In Florida, which has reported over one million coronavirus circumstances, Gov. Ron DeSantis reiterated his opposition to masks mandates earlier this week.

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The C.D.C. urged officers to restrict using high-risk nonessential indoor areas, to erect bodily obstacles and visible reminders underscoring the necessity for social distancing, and to start planning now for the distribution and administration of vaccines.

The company can be pushing for elevated testing of important employees who come into contact with the general public and people who find themselves in any other case at excessive threat.

Even with mass vaccinations apparently imminent, Dr. Honein emphasised the necessity to implement such measures. “We are seeing that light at the end of the tunnel, but need time to get to that,” she mentioned.

Dr. Nuzzo, of Johns Hopkins, and different consultants praised the company’s new emphasis on prioritizing colleges over venues like eating places and bars, a advice echoed by Mr. Biden and his advisers.

The C.D.C.’s earlier steering, issued over the summer time and doctored by the White House, additionally pushed for colleges to reopen however was not balanced by a scientific evaluation of the accompanying dangers, Dr. Nuzzo mentioned, including, “It felt more like a treatise rather than an analysis.”

Having all 10 measures in a single doc is useful and underscores the message that nobody technique can hinder the unfold of the virus, consultants mentioned. But the doc was skinny on some particulars, mentioned Dr. Nahid Bhadelia, medical director of the particular pathogens unit at Boston Medical Center.

Dr. Bhadelia was struck by the suggestion that there is likely to be a coordinated program at hand out masks to folks. “I haven’t seen that before, particularly for those who are at high risk,” she mentioned. But the C.D.C. didn’t specify whether or not states or employers ought to present the masks, she famous.

The new steering additionally emphasised the significance of enhancing air flow in indoor areas, the place airborne virus is a menace. But the company might have detailed greatest practices to reduce confusion, Dr. Bhadelia mentioned.

She cited totally enclosed out of doors eating “cabins” for example of the misguided options that may end result from unclear steering.

The company additionally didn’t make clear what the triggers needs to be for eating places or colleges to close down or which teams have been beneficial for elevated testing due to their higher interactions with different folks. “I would have loved to see a little bit more detail,” Dr. Bhadelia mentioned.