By Laura Bicker

BBC News, Seoul


media captionNorth Korea’s Kim Jong-un chokes up throughout speech

North Korean chief Kim Jong-un celebrated his birthday with an extended wish-list of recent weapons.

It included extra correct long-range missiles, tremendous massive warheads, spy satellites and a nuclear-powered submarine.

The navy plans introduced throughout one of many largest political occasions in North Korea within the final 5 years might sound threatening – and it’s certainly a menace.

But it is also a problem. The timing of this message is vital because it comes as US President-elect Joe Biden prepares to take workplace.

Mr Kim, who has additionally now been promoted to Secretary General (the best rank of the ruling Worker’s Party), is struggling to be heard outdoors his personal nation amidst the present tumult within the US.

But if the incoming US administration harbours any hopes of stopping Mr Kim’s nuclear ambitions, now is perhaps the time to pay attention.

“Kim’s announcements no doubt are meant to emphasise to the incoming US administration that a failure to take quick action will result in North Korea qualitatively advancing its capabilities in ways deleterious to US and South Korean interests,” mentioned Ankit Panda, writer of Kim Jong-un and the Bomb, including that Joe Biden’s administration ought to take this critically.

picture copyrightEPA

picture captionPeople in Seoul, South Korea, watch breaking information of a North Korean missile launch in July 2019

Mr Kim and Donald Trump met thrice, however they failed to succeed in any settlement to finish North Korea’s nuclear weapons programme or the present crippling financial sanctions imposed on Pyongyang by the US and the UN.

The questions being requested on the Korean peninsula are whether or not Joe Biden can do any higher, and whether or not he ought to take Mr Kim’s menace critically.

“I think the president-elect should take that at face value and, as soon as possible, clarify his perspective on what objectives his administration will seek in potential negotiations with North Korea,” mentioned Mr Panda.

“If Kim sees no shift from the traditional US emphasis on comprehensive and total nuclear disarmament before any sanctions can be eased, I’d think he’ll simply push ahead with testing and other activities,” he added.

In his speech to the 1000’s of delegates on the Workers’ Party Congress, Mr Kim described the US as his nation’s “biggest enemy” – however he additionally added that he didn’t “rule out diplomacy”.

The summits might have failed, however they’ve been glorified in technicolour in the principle corridor of the celebration Congress as an “event of the greatest significance in the history of world politics”.

So there’s wiggle room if Joe Biden needs to make use of it.

But Duyeon Kim, Adjunct Senior Fellow on the Center for a New American Security, mentioned the US must make the primary transfer and any deal will come at a price.

“Kim Jong-un’s price for the US is ending combined military drills with Seoul, removing sanctions, and refraining from making human rights criticisms before talks. Washington won’t do these unconditionally,” Duyeon Kim mentioned.

“Even if negotiations resumed, Kim’s price is high for any deal because he’s been suggesting Cold War-style arms control talks in which both sides take mutual and reciprocal steps. But that doesn’t make sense because there’s no parity between US and North Korean nuclear arsenals.”

It is my understanding that Donald Trump and Kim Jong-un got here near a deal at their second assembly in Hanoi in February 2019.

But that deal is now not on the desk, and Mr Kim is now negotiating with a really completely different president.

What Mr Kim is doing with this speech is attempting to show he has the higher hand.

He’s resetting the place to begin for talks – it is now not about giving up his present arsenal, it is about stopping him from constructing a brand new and improved one.

More fireplace and fury?

It’s not precisely an enormous shock that Mr Kim harbours ambitions to increase his nuclear arsenal.

But what got here as a shock to many was that he introduced an in depth checklist of his targets:

  • longer-range missiles
  • higher missiles
  • hypersonic missile
  • navy reconnaissance satellites
  • solid-fuel intercontinental ballistic missiles
  • new unmanned aerial car
  • new nuclear warheads
  • tactical nuclear weapons

Of course, any new weapon should be examined, and with checks come stress.

Everyone on the Korean peninsula remembers the specter of “fire and fury” promised by Donald Trump in 2017 after three long-range missile checks by North Korea.

South Korea is determined to keep away from a repeat of this ramped-up rhetoric and brinkmanship.

But Mr Kim is laying down the gauntlet and maybe questioning if he’ll get a response.

In his speech, he even mentioned how far he would love his long-range missiles to fly. He needs them capable of hit targets as much as 15,000km (9320 miles) away.

This vary would make Pyongyang greater than able to hitting the US.

North Korea launched what is named the Hwasong 15 in late 2017 and claimed then that the missile might attain any a part of the US whereas carrying a nuclear warhead.

But it isn’t identified if it has the expertise wanted to guard a nuclear warhead because it re-enters the environment to ship the weapon to its goal.

As for the dream of a nuclear-powered submarine, analysts imagine which may be a good distance off for the regime.

However, North Korea “has proven remarkably resilient in the past”, mentioned Mr Panda.

picture copyrightReuters

picture captionNorth Korea is ready to see the place Joe Biden stands on its nuclear ambitions

Kim Jong-un has managed to make important advances to its present nuclear programme regardless of a collection of deepening financial crises.

“Even if Kim can’t accomplish the entirety of his agenda, we should not bet against his will to push through and begin testing and manufacturing some of the systems he named,” mentioned Mr Panda.

Crackdown amid stories of meals disaster

The large query is, how will Kim Jong-un pay for his ambitions as his nation faces one of many bleakest financial conditions in many years. Could this wish-list be an empty menace?

Five years in the past, Mr Kim promised his individuals financial prosperity. Those plans are actually in tatters.

He opened the celebration Congress with an admission of failure.

The phrase “sorry” wouldn’t have been heard from his father or grandfather – however the younger chief is now used to creating apologies and was even seen in tears at a navy parade in October as he outlined the stark scenario dealing with his individuals.

North Korea’s borders had been closed practically a 12 months in the past to stop the unfold of Covid-19 from neighbouring China.

Pyongyang nonetheless denies having a single confirmed case of the virus, though there are lots of unconfirmed stories which declare Covid-19 has unfold inside the secretive state.

The border blockade has affected commerce with China which is now down by nearly 80%.

A collection of typhoons and floods have devastated important crops and homes.

NK News web site reported empty grocery store cabinets in North Korea’s capital Pyongyang, and the costs of easy items comparable to sugar have shot up, in response to South Korea’s spy company.

Diplomatic sources have informed me about sure items piled up on the border, together with medical provides.

At finest they’re delayed. At worst they don’t seem to be entering into the nation in any respect. And, in fact, strict financial sanctions stay in place.

North Korea is extra minimize off from the world than ever earlier than.

Internally, there are indicators that there’s a crackdown on casual markets which had sprung up throughout the nation as households tried to make extra cash.

These small indicators of capitalism had been tolerated for years – however now the state needs this cash too.

media captionNorth Korean potato propaganda is making a comeback… however what does it imply?

Peter Ward, a PhD Candidate on the University of Vienna, research the North Korean economic system carefully and mentioned this predated the pandemic and that “some of it dates back to before Kim Jong-un took power”.

“But the level of hostility toward market actors and the emphasis on restoring state retail we have seen since 2019 is notable and worrisome,” he mentioned.

So what might be carried out?

South Korea has been greater than hinting that the Biden administration ought to sign to Pyongyang that it’s prepared to speak.

President Moon Jae-in mentioned once more in his New Year deal with that he was prepared to fulfill North Korea’s chief “anytime and anywhere”.

media captionNorth Korea defectors: Why it is getting tougher to flee

But Kim Jong-un rejected this olive department, and sometimes dismisses Seoul as a participant in these discussions. He batted away recommendations of assist or collaboration on Covid-19 medicines and vaccines.

Jeongmin Kim, an analyst from NK News, mentioned it was “time Seoul lowered its expectations”.

“This party congress made it even clearer to President Moon that North Korea is not interested in the symbolic, small stuff like inter-Korean cooperation.

“But as with the US, North Korea didn’t shut the doorways fully on Moon’s face, however left it conditional: nearly saying, let’s examine the way you behave.

“It is a tall order, siding less with the US and holding hands with North Korea. Mr Moon can’t do that.

“But as a result of North Korea left it as conditional and didn’t sever ties fully, Seoul will doubtless maintain on to that hope and possibly go forward with what it could do – continued olive branches about public well being co-operation to no less than handle the chance of issues blowing up, till Moon’s time period is over in 2022,” said Jeongmin Kim.

So all roads to a deal appear to lead through Washington. The new administration has a growing and demanding list of priorities; North Korea is just one of them and is struggling to get any attention.

However, most analysts believe that if the US president-elect fails to respond quickly, North Korea will take action, probably by testing ballistic missiles.

Kim Jong-un has set the stage. His message now is, “Your transfer, Mr Biden.”