After defying the F.A.A. throughout its final check flight in December, the corporate bought approval however didn’t reach sticking the touchdown.

SpaceX’s Starship prototypes awaited test flights at the launch facilities at Boca Chica, Texas, on Monday.
Credit…Gene Blevins/Reuters

Kenneth Chang

If it exploded final time, strive, strive once more. They did, and it exploded once more.

On Tuesday, a check flight of SpaceX’s Starship, an enormous next-generation spacecraft that Elon Musk, the founder and chief govt of the non-public rocket firm, desires of in the future sending to Mars, got here to an explosive finish.

That temporary flight, to an altitude of about 6 miles after which again to a touchdown pad, appeared to once more exhibit how the mammoth rocket would tip over on its facet because it descended in a managed stomach flop again towards a touchdown.

But when the prototype fired its engines to proper itself again to a vertical orientation, it appeared that one engine didn’t correctly ignite, and Starship hit the bottom at an angle, disintegrating in a fireball, leaving a cloud of smoke rising over the check web site, which is in Boca Chica, Tex., close to Brownsville.

The finish was much like the final check flight in December which additionally led to an explosion at touchdown, though the actual reason for the rocket failing to decelerate sufficient might have been totally different.

This time, nonetheless, SpaceX at the very least had the permission of presidency regulators.

Last week, SpaceX and the Federal Aviation Administration, which regulates rocket launches, appeared to be in a wierd regulatory standoff. SpaceX had crammed the propellant tanks of this prototype of Starship — its ninth one — and appeared able to launch. But then the rocket stayed on the bottom when no approval from the F.A.A. arrived.

Mr. Musk expressed frustration on Twitter, describing the a part of the F.A.A. that oversees SpaceX as “fundamentally broken.”

Mr. Musk wrote, “Their rules are meant for a handful of expendable launches per year from a few government facilities. Under those rules, humanity will never get to Mars.”

Late on Monday, the F.A.A. gave permission for Tuesday’s launch, however then added that the December launch had occurred with out the company’s approval. SpaceX had requested a waiver to conduct that flight although it posed a larger hazard to the general public than allowed by laws. The F.A.A. denied the request. SpaceX defied the ruling and launched anyway.

The F.A.A. assertion indicated that the company was sad with the defiance of SpaceX. Even if Starship had landed completely, launching it with out approval was a violation of the corporate’s license.

SpaceX was advised to analyze and report on this collection of occasions and to halt testing that might endanger the general public till the corporate made modifications that glad the company.

In its assertion, the F.A.A. mentioned that SpaceX had complied with the protection laws, giving a inexperienced mild to this check flight.

Mr. Musk’s firm has grow to be profitable within the launch enterprise, and it’s now one of many world’s most precious privately held corporations. Its Falcon 9 rockets have grow to be a dominant workhorse for sending satellites to orbit. It routinely transports cargo to the International Space Station, and has lifted NASA astronauts there twice in 2020, with extra journeys deliberate this yr.

However, many are skeptical about Mr. Musk’s assertion that the corporate is just some years from sending a Starship to Mars, saying he has repeatedly set timelines for SpaceX that proved far too optimistic in how rapidly they’ve come to cross.

In 2019, when he offered an replace on the event of Starship, he mentioned a high-altitude check would happen inside months and that orbital flights may happen early in 2020.

Instead, a number of catastrophic failures occurred due to defective welding. When the propellant tanks stopped rupturing, one of many prototypes made a brief profitable flight in September. That earlier Starship mannequin, which resembled a twig paint can with the label eliminated, lifted itself practically 500 ft utilizing a single rocket engine earlier than setting down on the Texas check web site.

Jared Zambrano-Stout, a former official on the F.A.A.’s workplace of economic area transportation, mentioned he was surprised when he noticed the company’s assertion about SpaceX.

“SpaceX seems to have violated their launch license, and there does not seem to have been any repercussions,” he mentioned.

Mr. Zambrano-Stout, who’s now director of congressional and regulatory coverage at Meeks, Butera and Israel, a Washington regulation agency, mentioned he knew of no different cases the place the F.A.A. had denied a launch license or the place an organization launched with out approval from the F.A.A.

“It’s important for people to understand that the FAA’s job is not to stop launches from occurring,” he mentioned. “They are in the business of licensing launches.”

The company’s position is to make sure security for what it calls the “uninvolved public” — folks not concerned with SpaceX or the launch so that somebody simply strolling round or sitting at house shouldn’t be injured or killed if one thing goes flawed.

“I think it would be really hard to find an example of where the F.A.A. has stopped SpaceX from doing what it wanted to do” earlier than the December incident, Mr. Zambrano-Stout mentioned.

As SpaceX continues its improvement of Starship, it has already launched three different rockets this yr. One mission, Transporter-1, launched on Sunday and carried 133 business and authorities spacecraft (in addition to 10 of SpaceX’s Starlink web satellites). The launch represented SpaceX’s entry into the enterprise generally known as rideshare, by which quite a few clients pay for a fraction of the price of a visit to orbit.