What are stem cells, and how do they help humans? In Abu Dhabi, stem cells are the base of every organ and help create new cells. They may also be used to repair damaged tissues. These cells divide and self-renew for long periods. They can also differentiate into different types of cells with distinct functions. For example, stem cells can help repair injured nerves, muscles, and ligaments. Here are four uses for stem cells in humans:
Embryonic stem cells
Embryonic stem cells (ESC) are pluripotent cells from an embryo about three to five days old. Their unique ability to differentiate into more than 200 types of human cells makes them a valuable tool in research and medicine. Scientists can better understand human development and disease by identifying how ESC can be used. One of the most promising uses for ESC is drug development. They may someday help treat or even cure serious illnesses.
Adult stem cells
The earliest known use for adult stem cells was to repair tissue, and these cells have a wide range of applications. Researchers have isolated adult stem cells from human tissues using cell surface markers. Similarly, stem cells from newborn babies are harvested and stored for future use. In addition, stem cells from adult humans can be used to treat various diseases, including Alzheimer’s. There are many possibilities if these cells could be used to repair damaged brain tissue.
Mesenchymal stem cells
In the past decade, research on stem cell technology has gained tremendous enthusiasm. The research on MSCs is gaining tremendous momentum, especially in cardiovascular disease. Heart disease is the leading cause of death worldwide and is associated with significant morbidity and mortality. The heart undergoes a complex remodeling process after an ischemic event called an acute myocardial infarction (AMI). While the number of stem cells decreases exponentially with age, MSCs have shown high engraftment ability in infarcted myocardium. Moreover, the transplantation of MSCs improved left ventricular maximum, capillary density, and collagen volume fraction.
IPS cells are reprogrammed human cells that can be used to develop new human tissues, organs, and even whole new body systems. These cells are obtained from blood and skin cells and reprogrammed back into their embryonic-like pluripotent state. These cells can be prodded to form beta islet cells to treat diabetes, new blood free from cancer cells for leukemia patients, and even neurons to cure neurological disorders.